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北师大南湖附校“907红色根据地”

班训:学会做人 学会学习

 
 
 

日志

 
 

英语复习资料(1)初三上册重点词组短语解释  

2011-12-23 16:23:19|  分类: ◇学习资料 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
 

       Module 1   Unit 1

1. have a meeting    开会

2. That’s news to me!   我一 点也不知道。

3. listen up  注意听

4. a school magazine called New Standard

  一个叫做《新标准》的学校杂志

  called 作定语时,前面不加be 如: 

  a composition called “What is a

wonder of the world?”

  一篇题目为《一个世界奇迹是什么》的作文

5. Any more ideas?   还有更多的主意吗?

6. do some reviews about …

  做关于…的评论

7. do an interview with sb.  

  对某人做一个的采访

8. some ideas on …

  关于…的主意

9. get good grades   得到好成绩

              Unit 2

1.         --How long/wide/tall/high/deep is …?

    某物有多长/宽/高/深?

--It is …metres long/wide/tall/high/deep.

  它有…米长/宽/高/深。

--How far is …?   某地有多远?

--It is … metres away.   它有…米远。

2.         get out of … 从…出来

3.         in the east/west/south/north

在东边/西边/南边/北边

4. go the right/wrong way 

  走对路/走错路

5.       look over sth.   仔细看某物

6. reply 跟 answer 的区别:

  Sb. answer = Sb. reply

   answer the question

= reply to the question 

reply 还可以表示“答复”,如:

He didn’t reply to my invitation.

他没有答复我的邀请。

7. below 跟 under 的区别:

  under “在…的正下方”,表示只能位置关系,如:

  We are sitting under the tree.

  below “在…之下”,除了表示位置关系,还可以表示温度等。如:

  The temperature is ten degrees below zero.  温度是零下10度。

Please sign your name below the line.

  请在这条线下签你的名字。

8. on the edge of …   在…的边缘

9.             at the bottom of …  在…的底部

10. reach  

除了表示“到达”还可以表示“够得着”

I can’t reach the book on the shelf.

我够不着书架上的那本书。

11. over …= more than …   超过 …

12. not … but …    不是…而是…

   It is not a cat but a little tiger.

            Module 2    Unit 1

1. If I’ve got it right,     

如果我没猜错的话,    

2. as far as    就…来说

as far as I remember   凭我记忆

as far as I know      据我所知

3. not … any more = no more 

(数量上)再也不…

  not … any longer = no longer

(时间上)再也不…

not就是把一个句子变成否定句,

any more/longer放在句子末尾;

no more/longer放在实义动词前,

系动词和情态动词后.

如:

  We have a school magazine.

 --We don’t have a school magazine any more.

=We no more have a school magazine.

 我们再也没有学校杂志了。

  I can eat.

-- I can’t eat any more.

= I can eat no more.

我再也吃不了。

  You are a child.

--You are not a child any longer.

=You are no longer a child.

你再也不是个小孩了。

Annie lives here.

--Annie doesn’t live here any longer.

=Annie no longer lives here.

  Annie再也不住在这里了。

4. I’m thinking about doing sth.  

我正在考虑做某事

5. Sounds like a good idea!   

听起来像个好主意!

6. millions of      好几百万

7. be known as    作为…而闻名

             Unit 2

1. lively    adj.  活泼的

  alive    adj.  活着的

  The children are very lively.

  His grandfather is still alive.

2. get lost = be lost   迷路

3. be surprised to do sth.  

做某事感到很惊讶

We were surprised to hear the news.

听到这个消息我们很惊讶。

4. pleased   adj.(形容人)高兴的=happy

  pleasure   n.   乐趣

  They are pleased to see him alive.

  看到他活着他们很高兴。

  Study can bring us pleasure.

  学习给我们带来快乐。

  --Will you lend me your pen?

  --With pleasure.         很乐意。

/That’s my pleasure.  /这是我的荣幸。

5.be/have to do with ….   和…有关

My question has to do with yesterday’s homework.

我的问题和昨天的作业有关。

It has nothing to do with you.

它和你无关。

6. be punished for …   因为…而受罚

  Tom is punished for being late.

  Tom因为迟到而受罚。

7. every day   adv.    每天(作时间状语)

  everyday   adj. 每天的,日常的(作定语)

  I get up at 6 every day.

  These are my everyday shoes.

8. be thought to be …   被认为是…

  He is thought to be a naughty student.

  他被认为是一个淘气的学生。

            Module 3  Unit 1

1. be against    对抗

2. stand for     代表

3. You’ve got no chance!

  你没有机会了!

4. allow sb. to do sth.  允许某人做某事

  (被动) Sb. be allowed to do sth.

5. get to sb.    让某人感到烦恼。

  Don’t let them get to you.

不要让她们影响你。

6.be mad with sb.   

对某人感到极度生气

           Unit 2

1. first of all     首先

2. a symbol of …     … 的象征

a symbol for …    …的标志

The pigeon is a symbol of peace.

鸽子是和平的象征。

The five rings is a symbol for the Olympic Games.

 五环是奥运会的标志。

3.now that + 句子    既然…

  Now that Mr. Liu has come, we can begin our meeting. 

4. make sure + 句子     确保…

  You must make sure that you won’t tell anyone else.

  你必须确保你不会告诉别的任何人。

5.eourage sb. to do sth.  鼓励某人做某事

   (被动) Sb. be encouraged to do sth.

6. skill at …   在…方面的技巧

7.set up     建立,成立

8.compare A with B   那A和B做比较

 (被动)A be compared with B

9. find out   了解到…

10.go for sth.    追求…

          Module 4   Unit 1

1. for ages = for many years

  (做某事做了)好几年

2.Can I ask a favour?   

我可以叫你帮个忙吗?

Can you do me a favor?  

你可以帮我个忙吗?

3.on the visit to …   在去…的旅途中

4.from now on     从现在开始

5.mean doing sth.     意味着做某事 

6.once   可以表示“一次”和“曾经”

7. 固定搭配的词组变成被动时不能分开。如:

1)We must take good care of old people.

--- Old people must be taken good cared of.

  2) He listened to the music.

  -- The music was listened to by him.

8. a couple of   两三个,几个

9.see to sth./sb.    处理,照顾

   --These windows need to be cleaned.

   -- I’ll see to them later.

10. leave sth. somewhere  

把某物遗忘在某处

I left my homework at home.

11. Is that clear?     明白了吗?

Unit 2

paper        纸(不可数名词)

a piece of paper    

two pieces of paper

newspaper   报纸(可数名词)

a newspaper

two newspapers

2. on one’s way to …    在某人去…的路上

  on one’s way home   在某人回家的路上

3. look through   浏览

4.be made of    由…做成的(看得出材料)

   be made from 由…做成的(看不出材料)    

   be made up of  由…组成(部分或成员)

   be made into     被做成…(产品)

be made in     在…被制作出来的(产地)

   be made by     由…制作(生产者)

The camera is made in Germany.

The table is made of wood

Paper is made from wood.

 Our class is made up of twenty boys and twenty-three girls.

  The metal can be made into a knife.

  This kite is made by my father.

7.at a time  一次

6.by hand    手工的

This bag is made by hand. 

这个袋子是手工制作的。

7.by doing sth.   通过做某事

  You can improve your English by listening to the radio.

8. at the beginning of …    在…的开始

  at the end of …         在…的末尾

9. in a way     从某种程度上来说

10. rather than   胜过,而不愿

He would choose Sunday rather than Saturday.

他宁可选择星期天而不是星期六。

prefer to do… rather than do…

情愿做某事而不愿做某事          

I prefer to go with you rather than stay at home.  我情愿跟你去而不愿呆在家。

11. one day    (将来)某一天


        Module 5 Unit 1

1. No doing.    禁止做某事

  No smoking.     禁止抽烟。  

No littering.     禁止乱扔。

  No shouting.     禁止大声喧哗。

  No spitting.      禁止吐痰。

2. look forward to sth.   期待某事

  look forward to doing sth.  期待做某事

3. be against the rules    违反规定

4. go upstairs   走上楼

  go downstairs   走下楼

 (upstairs和downstairs是副词,前面不能加介词to)

5. Hang on a minute. = Wait a minute. 

等待一下

6. as well = too = also   也

  在否定句中要改为 either

  I don’t like the music, either.

  either 还可以表示“两者之一的”

  both    两者都

  neither  两者都不

  There are trees on both sides of the road.

  There are trees on either side of the road.

  Neither of my parents is at home. 

7. have got to do = have to do

不得不做某事

8. by +时间    到…时候为止

  by now   到现在为止 

  by then   到那时为止

  by three o’clock   到3点钟为止

  by the end of last year  到去年年底为止 

9. go off = leave   离开

10. on one’s own   自己

11. amazing = surprising   令人惊讶的

   amazed = surprised    惊讶的

12. pay attention to …    注意…

   pay no attention to …   没有注意 …

13. hurry up   赶快

14. take long    花长时间

15. kind of + adj.   有点…

  =a little + adj.

  = a bit + adj.

16. No wonder + 句子   怪不得…

   Tom didn’t pass the exam. No wonder he looks unhappy today.

             Unit 2

1.动名词做主语:

   Visiting the Science Museum is fun.

2. learn about sth.    了解某事

3. work out     设法弄懂,算出

  (名词放两边,代词放中间)

  Work out the problem

= work the problem out

  work it out      work them out

4. try out   试用,试验

  (名词放两边,代词放中间)

5.fill A with B           用B填满A

(被动) A be filled with B    A被填满了B

    =A be full of B

6. falling sand   正在掉落的沙子

  falling---现在分词做定语,修饰sand

7. compare A with/to B    拿A跟B做比较

(被动)A be compared with/to B.

8. as well as = and   和

 Plants need air and water as well as light.

  A and B are ….

  A as well as B is(动词由A决定) ….

= A is … as well as B

Your wife as well as you is friendly to me.

=Your wife is friendly to me as well as you.

9. above all    最重要的是,首先

  Above all, don’t forget to write to us.

10. drop in   顺便走访

   Drop in and see us when you are free.

11. as … as   和… 一样

   Tony runs as fast as Daming.

   as …as you like   你想…就…

   You can stay as long as you like.

   你想呆多久就呆多久。


           Module 6   Unit 1

1.         Hey, you guys! = Hey, you lot!   

喂,伙计们.

2. Guess what!   猜猜 

3.       be careful about/of sth.   

小心,谨慎对待某事

Be careful of/about the stone in the middle of the road.

小心路中间的那块石头。

4. throw away    扔掉(代词放中间)

5.       waste 可做名词和动词。如:

Every class collect reusable waste.  

每个班级都收集再利用的费品。

We don’t waste electricity.

我们不浪费电。

wasteful   adj.   浪费的

It’s wasteful to throw away paper.

扔掉纸是浪费的。

5.sell sth. for recycling  卖某东西再循环

6.raise money  捐款

7.save energy       节约能源

             Unit 2

1.care about    关心,在意

   care about doing sth.   关心做某事

   She never cares about herself.

   Do you care about saving energy?

2. latest   adj. 最新的, 最晚的

  Let’s hear the latest news.

He is the latest to come to the meeting.

3. instead of   代替,而不是

instead of doing sth.  而不是做某事

4. do harm to …=be harmful to…  

对…有害处

Going to bed late does harm to our health.

 do good to … 对…有好处

 Having a holiday will do good to you.

4.       make a difference to … 

 对…产生重大影响

The sea air has made a difference to her health.

5. maybe the old one will be just as good(as the new one).

也许旧的东西也(像新的)一样好5. make a difference to …  对…造成很大影响 

  

6. do 放在动词原形前面表示强调。如:

  When we do buy things, …

  当我们确实买东西的时候,…

  I did tell you about it.

  我确实告诉你这件事了。

7. if possible   如果可能的话

8. as … as possible   尽可能…

  You must come back home as early as possible.

  Please think of as many words as possible.

9. last      v.    持续

  The meeting will last for 40 minutes.

  last     adj.   上一个,最后的

  last week/year

  December is the last month of the year.

10. one    除了作数词还可以作代词,用来代替上文的事物避免重复

    I want to buy the cheaper computer instead of the expensive one.

    one作代词时,复数形式加s

    It’s wasteful to throw away the paper cups and use the new ones.

11. change … into …   把 …变成…

12. take part in + 活动/比赛   参加活动

  join +   组织           加入组织

  I want to take part in the competition.

  He joined the Greener China last year.

13.turn off =  turn out   关掉

 

前缀,后缀构词法

一.                 前缀

1. un-, dis-, in-, im-, 表示“不,无”

  unhappy,  dishonest,

incorrect,  impossible

2.         anti-  表示“反对“

anti-war,  anti-pollution

3. re-   表示“再”

  rewrite,  reuse

二.后缀

1. –er, -or  表示“从事某种职业的人”

  reader,   worker,

  inventor,  visitor,

2. –ion, -tion, -sion, -ness, -ment 构成名词

  invention,  introduction,

happiness,  development

3. –able, -ful, -al, -y  构成形容词

  comfortable,  eatable,

helpful,   useful,

environmental,  national,

rainy,  sunny

4. –less  构成否定形容词

  careless, useless, hopeless

5. –ly   构成副词

  carefully, possibly

6. –teen, -ty, -th 构成数词

  fifteen, thirty, seventh

          Module 7  Unit 1

1. What are you up to?

   你在做什么?

2. Would you like a hand …?

   你想要帮忙吗?

3. have a look at …   看一看…

4. in the centre of ….   在…的中央

5. on our way back from…  

  在我们从…回来的路上

6. I bet you do!     我打赌你会做到的。

7. only once + 句子   

只有在…的条件下才行

           Unit 2

1.take a helicopter tour

   take/ go on a … tour 表示进行…旅途

go on a camel ride   骑骆驼旅游

2. be surprised at sth. 对某事感到惊讶

  Tom was surprised at the result of the exam.

 be surprised to do sth. 对做某事感到惊讶

 Tom was surprised to hear the news.

3. at different times of the day

  在每天的不同时刻

4. in many ways     在很多方面

  They are like us in many ways.

  in different ways    用不同的方法

  I can work out this math problem in different ways.

in a way         在某种程度上来说

In a way, that can be compared with the introduction of the Internet in the 20th century.

  by the way         顺便说一下

5. be similar to 与…相似

His answer is similar to mine.

6. have a good/bad temper   有好/坏脾气

Miss Li is very kind. She has a good temper.

7. keep doing sth.   不断做某事

  It keeps raining these days.

定语从句

一.概念

定语从句:充当定语的句子就叫做定语从句,翻译为“…的”。

主句:包含定从的句子叫做主句,它是一个句子的主干部分。

先行词:被定语从句修饰的词是先行词。

关系词:用来引导定语从句词是关系词。

如:He is a boy that likes to help others.

他是个喜欢帮助别人的男孩.

主句:He is a boy.

定语从句:that likes to help others

先行词:boy

关系词:that

定从由关系词引导,紧跟在它所修饰的先行词后。

翻译句子,并找出主句,定从,先行词,关系词:

1.The house that stands near the hill is my grandma’s.

2. The old man that I visited yesterday is my teacher.

关系词包括关系代词和关系副词,本模块主要学习关系代词that的用法。

一.关系代词的作用:

作用1:在定从中代替先行词,充当定从的主语,宾语或表语。

作用2:连接先行词和定语从句

如例1.

The house that stands near the hill is my grandma’s.

that = the house, 作定从的主语

例2.

The old man that I visited yesterday is my teacher.

that = the old man, 作定从的宾语,

把that提前到定从前面来连接先行词和定从

分析下列句子中that在定从中的成分

1. The train that has just left is for Xi’an.

2. Is she the girl that sells flowers?

3. The pen that you gave me is very nice.

4. The bag that lies on the ground is hers.

5. The teacher that you are looking for is in the office.

由以上句子可以看出that的用法:

1.       当先行词是人或物时,都可以用that引导。

2.        that 充当定从的主语时,不能省略,

that 充当定从的宾语时可以省略。

如:

 The pen (that) you gave me is very nice.

        that作宾语,可以省略

The bag that lies on the ground is hers.

          that作主语,不可以省略

总结:

一.         概念:

定语从句:充当定语的句子就叫做定语从句,翻译为“…的”。

主句:包含定从的句子叫做主句,它是一个句子的主干部分。

先行词:被定语从句修饰的词是先行词。

关系词:用来引导定语从句词是关系词。

二.关系代词的作用:

作用1:在定从中代替先行词,充当定从的主语,宾语或表语。

作用2:连接先行词和定语从句

三.关系代词that的用法

1.             当先行词是人或物时,都可以用that引导。

2.             that 充当定从的主语时,不能省略,

that 充当定从的宾语时可以省略。

 

 


          Module 8   Unit 1

1. at the back/front    在后面/前面

  on the left/right     在左边/右边

2. over     越过

  climb over the wall   爬过这道墙

  see over the people   越过人群看

3. enter the competition  

 =take part in the competition

参加比赛

4. You bet!    (口语)当然!

5. get sb. doing sth. 

 = make sb. do sth.

使某人做某事

How did you get the camera working?

= How did you make the camera work?

6. How did you get on?   你进展怎样?

  get on well with sb.   与某人相处融洽

  get on well with sth.   某事进展顺利

  He gets on well with his classmates.

  Mary didn’t get on well with her work.

7. be in with a chance to do sth.

 = have a chance to do sth.

   有机会去做某事

8. have gone = be missing  

 = be lost = get lost  

不见了,失踪了

My watch has gone.

 =My watch is missing.

= My watch is/gets lost.

9. You are kidding!    你在开玩笑吧!

10. expect to do sth.  

期待,料到去做某事

11. pick up sth.   捡起某物

   pick up sb.    接人

   My father picks me up every day.

Unit 2

1. be pleased with sb./sth.

  对某人/某物感到满意

2. even though + 句子

 = even if +  句子        

即使…(对虚拟的情况进行让步)

 I won’t go to the party even though/if I have time. 

即使我有时间我也不会去参加聚会的。

  though = although     

虽然…(对现实的情况进行让步)

I didn’t go to the party though/although I had time.

虽然我有时间,但是我没有去参加聚会。

3.read on    继续读

   动词+on   表示继续做某事

4.know … well   对…熟悉

5. manage to do sth.   设法去做某事

  We managed to get what we wanted.

  我们设法得到了我们想要的东西。

6. a collection of   一组…

7. work on sth.     从事…

8. Congratulations to sb.   祝贺某人

9. present the prize    颁奖

  give prizes to sb.     给某人颁奖

         which, who 引导的定语从句

一.which引导的定从只能修饰事物

   who 引导的定从只能修饰人

   that引导的定从能修饰人和事物

   which, who, that作主语时不能省略,

作宾语时可以省略。

 如:The boy who/that is talking is Jack.

     This is the computer (which/that) he bought yesterday.

二.当who在定从中作宾语时,应该用who的宾格形式whom,但现代语法中也可以用who。如:

Do you know Mr. Zhang (who/whom/that) they like very much?

三.关系代词作定从的主语时,从句谓语动词的单复数要跟先行词的一致。如:

1.       The students who are interested in music can join the music club.

先行词是复数,定从的谓语要复数

2.        He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man.

  先行词是单数,定从的谓语要单数

四.定从的时态不受主句时态的影响。如:

I am reading the book that I bought yesterday.

我正在读我昨天买的书。

(主句现在进行时,定从一般过去时)

总结

一.which引导的定从只能修饰事物

   who 引导的定从只能修饰人

   that引导的定从能修饰人和事物

   which, who, that作主语时不能省略,

作宾语时可以省略。

二.当who在定从中作宾语时,应该用who的宾格形式whom,但现代语法中也可以用who。

三.关系代词作定从的主语时,从句谓语动词的单复数要跟先行词的一致。

四.定从的时态不受主句时态的影响。


          Module 9   Unit 1

1. Oh dear!    天啊!

2. It’s no laughing matter.  

   这不是什么可笑的事情。

3. over there     在那边

4. have a word with sb.     和某人说句话

5. That’s good news.       这是个好消息。

  news是不可数名词,前面不能加a

  可以加量词  a piece of news

two pieces of news

6. Here you are.     给你。

7. be in deep trouble    有大麻烦

          Unit 2

1. orange-and-white   黄白相间的

  black-and-white     黑白的

2. win the heard of …    赢得…的心

3. a group of    一群…

4. He eats as many peaches as he likes.   

他喜欢吃多少桃子就吃多少。

as … as possible   尽可能…

as early as possible  尽早

5. make a mess   弄得一团糟

6. ever since + 句子    自从…

7. translate … into …   把…翻译成…

8. have sth. done (by sb.)  

把某物让别人…了

We had the machine mended.

我们把机器让人修好了。

He has had his hair cut.

他把头发请人给他剪了。

9.选择疑问句:

在一般疑问句后加or …构成选择疑问句。

选择疑问句不能回答Yes或No,要选择其中一个进行回答。如:

--Are you in Class 1 or Class 2?

--I’m in Class 1.

/I’m in Class 2.

/Neither, I’m in Class 5.

10. 在定从中,当先行词是人和事物时,关系代词只能用that。如:

I often think of the persons and things that I saw in the journey.

我经常想起在旅途中遇见的人和事物。

定从中只能用that的情况

1. 当先行词是everything, anything, nothing, something, all, none, few, little, 等代词时,只能用that。 如:

  Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said?

  你记下李老师讲的一切了吗?

  All that can be done has been done.

  所有能做的都做好了。

2. 当先行词被序数词和形容词最高级修饰的时候,只能用that。如:

  The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.

  他们在伦敦参观的第一个地方是大本钟。

  This is the best film that I have ever seen.

  这是我看过的最好的电影。

3. 当主句有who, which等疑问词时,定从只能用that引导。如:

   Who is the man that is standing over there?

   站在那边的人是谁?

   Which is the T-Shirt that you bought?

   你买的T恤是哪一件?

4. 当先行词是人和事物时,关系代词只能用that。如:

I often think of the persons and things that I saw in the journey.

我经常想起在旅途中遇见的人和事物。

 

 

               Module 10 Unit 1

1.         a bit + 形容词= a little 形容词

表示“有点…”

I’m a bit tired. = I’m a little tired.

我有点累了。

a little + 不可数名词

a bit of + 不可数名词

There is a little time left.

= There is a bit of time left.

还剩下一点时间。

2. give up     放弃

  give up doing sth. 放弃做某事

  My father gave up smoking 2 years ago.

  我爸爸2年前戒烟了。

3. stay fit = keep fit   保持健康

4.need to do sth.    需要做某事

5. take exercise   做运动

  exercise 表示“锻炼”时是不可数名词,

  表示练习时,是可数名词

doing morning exercise 做晨练

do eye exercise     做眼操

These maths exercises are very difficult.

这些数学习题很难。

6. go running    去跑步

  go swimming  去游泳

  go sightseeing   去观光

7. talk to sb.      跟某人说话

  talk with sb.    跟某人交谈

8. nearly  adv. 几乎,差不多

  Nearly 300 students entered the competition.

差不多300个学生参加了比赛。

The car nearly hit the man.

车差点撞到那个男子。

9. not … any more    不再…

10. bump into sb.   碰见

   I bumped into an old friend yesterday.

   昨天我碰见一个老朋友。

            Unit 2

1. know about    了解

2. include    v. 包括

including  介词. 可以做伴随状语

 Your duties include doing the cleaning and cooking.  

你的职责包括做清洁和做饭。

Many people like pop music including my grandpa.

很多人都喜欢流行音乐,包括我爷爷。

3.persuade sb. (not) to do sth.

说服某人做(不要做)某事

My father persuaded me not to join the club.  爸爸劝说我不要参加那个俱乐部。

4.ban … from …        禁止…进入…

   ban … from doing sth.  禁止…做某事

   Mobile phones must be banned from schools.   应该禁止带手机进入学校。

   The policeman banned him from driving.

    警察禁止他开车。

5. a TV programme showed his visits to the school. 一个电视节目播放了他的这次学校之行。

(这里visit是名词,后面的to the school是定语)

6. get/have sth. done     把某物给…了

get things done    把事情做了。

I’ll have/get my computer repaired.

我要把电脑给修了。 

7. put on weight   增加体重

  lose weight     减肥

 8. in order to do sth.    为了…

   What do you sometimes have to do in order to get fit?

   有时候你不得不做什么来健身呢?

whose引导的定从

当先行词与从句中某个名词有所属关系时,就用whose 引导定从。如:

  There is a boy in our team.

  The boy’s parents want him to go to a

  sports school.

 --- There is a boy in our team whose parents want him to go to a sports school.

通常包含whose引导的定从的句子可以

译成两句汉语。如以上句子可以译成:

在我们队里有个男孩,他的父母想让他

参加体校。

先行词是人是物都可以用whose引导,如:

 1)He is the only student in our class

   whose father is a policeman.

   他是我们班唯一一个爸爸是警察的学生。

 2)The desk whose leg is broken will

   be repaired.

   那张断了只脚的桌子将被拿去修理。  

            Module 11

数字的写法和读法

1.1—10

one two three four five six seven eight nine ten

2. 11—20

  eleven  twelve   thirteen   fourteen fifteen   sixteen   seventeen   eighteen

  nineteen  twenty

3. 几十

  twenty   thirty     forty    fifty   

 sixty    seventy     eighty    ninety

注意:four要去掉u再加ty; nine直接加ty

     只有变为序数词时nine要去e加th.

4. 几十几

注意:十位数和十位数之间要加连字符

  twenty-six     ninety-seven

5. 百位数和十位数之间可以加and也可以不加。当十位数为零时,一定要加and

  156  one hundred (and) fifty-six

  509  five hundred and nine

6. 英语里每三个数为一个单位,用一个逗号隔开。第一个逗号为thousand(千);第二个逗号为million(百万);第三个逗号为billion(十亿)。如:

  13,000      thirteen thousand(1万3千)

  648,000    six hundred (and) forty-eight thousand  (64万8千)

  9,500,060  nine million, five hundred thousand and sixty(950万零60)

  1,300,000,000  one billion, three hundred thousand (13亿)

7. 表示具体数字时,hundred, thousand,

million, billion不能加s;

表达一个大概的数字时,可以加s

five thousand students   五千个学生

thousands of students    好几千个学生

8. 序数词的构成;在基数词后加th

特殊变化的序数词:

   first   second   third   fifth  eighth

   ninth   twelfth   twentieth

9. 整十的数字把y改为ie再加th

   twentieth    fiftieth    

10. 几十几的数字只用把个位数变成序数词

   twenty-first       sixty-fourth

11.分数的表达:

分子用基数词,分母用序数词。

   当分子大于1时,分母要复数。

     1/3      one third

     1/2     a half

    1/4      one fourth = a quarter

3/10    three tenths

冠词的用法

冠词分为不定冠词(a, an)和定冠词(the)

a/an后面加可数名词的单数, an用在元音发音开头的单词。如:

a student      an hour

the后面可以加可数名词的单数和复数,

也可以加不可数名词。如:

the information

the boy

the students

1.不定冠词的用法

1)表示“一个”

 I can see a plane in the sky.

2)表示“种类”

 An elephant is bigger than a tiger.

3)表示“每一个”= every

Take the medicine three times a day.

4)表示“某人某物”但不具体说明何人何物

*A man is wanting to see you.

2.定冠词的用法

 1)指上文提到过的人或物, 或说话双方都知道的人或物。表示“这个/那个,这些/那些”。如:

 There’s a pen on the desk. The pen is mine.

 Do you know the man who is running.

 The teacher asked the students to sit down.

 2)世界上独一无二的事物前用定冠词the

    the sun     the moon    the earth

 3)序数词, 形容词最高级和乐器前要加the

the second    the tallest      

play the piano

 4)在复数姓氏前加the,表示××一家人,常看成复数

  *The Browns are going to Shanghai for a holiday this summer.

5)在一些形容词前,表示一类人

    the rich 富人     the old  老人

3.零冠词(不用冠词)

1)在节日、星期、月份、季节、年、学科等词前不用冠词

    in summer    in August 

    on Sunday    study physics

 但是特指某个时间时可加the。如:

in the spring of 1945

  在1945年的那个春天

 2)一日三餐和球类运动名词前不用冠词

   *have breakfast      *play football

3)名词前已有this, that, next, last,物主代词等作定语时,不用冠词

   * They met here this morning.

   * He is my best friend.

4)称呼、头衔,国家和一些专有名词前不用冠词

   Mr. Li      Uncle Wang    China    

   Xin Min Middle School

           Unit 1

1. What’s the population of …?

  某地的人口有多少?

The population is big/large.

人口多。

(注意:形容人口多不能用many来修饰population; people才能用many来修饰)

2. along with = together with

  连同,与…在一起

  Tintin has been to many places along with his dog.

3. look up  查看,查(字典)

  I’ll look up the word in the dictionary.

4. comp up   出现,进行

  He came up at last.   

最后他出现了。

  The sports meeting will come up next month.  

下个月将进行运动会。

5. thanks to  多亏

  Thanks to the policeman, the boy was found. 

多亏了警察,孩子被找到了。

  thanks to = because of   由于

         Unit 2

1. over + 时间    表示“在…期间”

  over the last 50 years  在上个50年间

  over the past 10 years  在过去的10年间

2. in the distance   在远处

3. be close to …   靠近…

4. no + 单数名词 = not a +单数名词

  No + 复数名词 = not any + 复数名词

  There is no student in the classroom.

 = There isn’t a student in the classroom.

  There are no clouds in the sky.

 = There aren’t any clouds in the sky.

5. room 作可数名词时表示“房间”

        作不可数名词时表示“空间”

  There are 3 rooms in my house.

  我家有3间房。

  There is little room for the desk.

  没有空间来放这张桌子了。

6. close down   关闭,倒闭

7. add to   增加

8. run 可以表示“经营,管理”

  run a company   经营一个公司

  run a city        管理一个城市

9. protect … from …  

保护…不受…(的侵害)

protect people from crime 

保护人民不受不法活动的侵害

           Module 12   Unit 1

1.         give a warm welcome to sb.

热烈欢迎某人

welcome 既可以做动词也可以做名词

Let’s welcome Tom to our class.

2.         be pleased/happy to do sth. 

高兴去做某事

3. as a pupil = when I was a pupil

  当我是个学生的时候

4. my time here was very important.

  我在这里的时间是非常重要的。

  句中的here作定语,修饰time,要后置。

   The people there are very friendly.

   那里的人们很友善。

5. free   adj. 自由的,有空的,免费的

The bird is free in the sky.

鸟儿在天空很自由。

Are you free this Sunday?

这个星期天你有空吗?

The food there is free.

那里的食物是免费的。

6. each   表示“每个”

做形容词时等于every,但each 强调“个体”,every 强调“整体”。如:

Each/Every student has an English book.

每个学生都有一本英语书。

(用every student 表达相当于 all the students )

each还可以作副词,不能用every替代。如:

 They earned 100 dollars each.

 他们每人赚了100美元。

7.watch sb. do sth.  观看某人做某事

        Unit 2

1. experience    n. 经验(u.n.),经历(c.n.)

experience    v. 体验

experienced   adj. 有经验的

He has much experience in teaching.

他有丰富的教学经验。

Please tell me your experiences in Africa.

请告诉我你在非洲的经历。

Have you ever experienced poorness?

你有没有经历过贫穷?

He is an experienced teacher.

他是一个有经验的教师。

2. up to + 数字   直到,至多

We can invite up to 20 people.

我们可以邀请至多20个人。

3. progress   进展(不可数名词)

make progress with/in sth.

在某方面取得进步

I’ve made progress with/in English.

我的英语已经有了进步。

4. take place   发生, 进行(没有被动语态)

  The story took place on a cold winter morning.

  这个故事发生在一个寒冷的冬天的早上。

  The training course will take place next week.

  这个培训课程下周开始。

5. choose to do sth.   选择去做某事

6. a place of interest    

名胜(在place这里变复数)

How many places of interest have you been to?

你去过多少个名胜了?

7. fill in    填写

fill in the blanks    填空

fill in the form      填表

fill sth. with sth.     用…装满…

8. where 引导的定从

  当先行词在定从中做地点状语时,用where来引导。where = 介词+which。如:

  Do you know the factory where your father works?

  = Do you know the factory which your father works in?

你知道你爸爸工作的工厂吗?

主谓一致

1. 不定代词somebody, anything, everybody, everything, no one等作主语,谓语动词用单数。

Is everyone here today.   

今天大家到齐了吗?

Everything is ready.  

一切都准备好了。

2. no, each, every, either, neither作主语,谓语动词用单数。

No student likes this kind of computer games.

没有一个学生喜欢这种游戏。

Each of them has an English dictionary.  

他们每人都有一本英语词典。

3. some of, 几分之几 + of,  the rest of(剩下的)做主语时,谓语动词的单复数由of后的名词。如:

Some of the money was gone.

其中的一些钱不见了。

One third of the students are League members. 1/3的同学是团员。

none of 后的名词如果是单数,谓语也要单数;如果名词是复数,谓语可单可复。

None of the water was left.

一点儿水也没剩。

None of the students has/have been to the island. 没有一个学生去过那个小岛。

4. 动词不定式,动名词或句子作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

To see is to believe.  眼见为实。

Doing eye exercises is good for your eyes. 做眼睛保健操对你的眼睛十分有益。

Where to have the meeting is not decided.该去那里开会还没有决定。

5.表示时间,价格,重量,数目,长度,数学运算等的词或短语作主语时,这些通常作一个整体概念,谓语用单数形式。例如:

Two months is a long holiday.   

两个月是一个长假。

Twenty pounds isn’t so heavy.   

20磅并不太重。

Ten miles isn’t a long distance.  

10英里并不是一段很长的距离。

Five minus four is one.         

5减4等于1。

6. 由 with,together with,along with,as well as,besides,except,but,like等介词或介词短语时连接两个主语时,谓语动词的单复数由第一个名词决定。  

Mike with his father has been to England.   

迈克同他的父亲去过英格兰。

Mike, like his brother, enjoys playing football   

迈克像他的哥哥一样喜欢踢足球。

The students as well as the teacher were very happy in the park.

同学们和老师在公园里都玩得很高兴。

7. people, police等集体名词作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。family, class, group, team等集体名词作主语,若指一个整体时,谓语动词用单数形式;若指一个具体成员时,谓语动词复数形式。

People here are very friendly.    这儿的人很友好。

His family isn’t large.   

他家的人不多。

My family all like watching TV.    我们一家人都喜欢看电视。

8.有量词来修饰名词时,谓语动词的单复数由量词来决定。如:

The pair of glasses is too expensive.

这副眼镜太贵了。

Three pieces of bread are enough.

三片面包够了。

9. 由both…and…作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;但there be, or,  either…or…(或者…或者…), neither…nor…(既不…也不…),  not only…but also…(不但…而且…),  not…but…(不是…而是…)作主语时,谓语动词就要就近原则。

    There is a book and three pens on the desk.

    桌子上有一本书和三只笔。

Either my wife or I am going.

或者我妻子去,或者我去。

Neither you, nor I, nor anyone else knows the answer.

既不是你,也不是我,更没有别的任何人知道这个答案。

Not only you but also he is interested in the story.

不但你,还有他都对这个故事感兴趣。

10. the+形容词表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  The poor are very happy, but the rich are sad.

11. the number of … 

表示“…的数量”,谓语动词用单数。

a number of …    

表示“许多” 等于many,谓语动词用复数。如:

The number of the students in our class is 50.       我们班同学的数量是50。

 A large number of students are learning English now.许多学生正在学英语。

12.当and所连接的并列主语指同一个人,事物,或概念时,谓语动词用单数。如:

The writer and teacher is coming.  

那位作家兼教师来了。

(teacher前不加the表示作家和教师指同一个人)

The writer and the teacher are coming.   作家和老师来了。

(teacher前加the表示作家和老师是两个人)

13.主语是each/every + 单数名词+and(each/every)+单数名词时,谓语动词用单数。

Each boy and each girl has got a seat.    每个男孩和女孩都有一个座位。

Every man and every woman is at work.   每个男人和女人都在工作。

 

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